Educated Management Will Help Keep Your Business in Labor Law Compliance

Managers are the primary contact with most of the rank-and-file employees in an organization. Whether it is an office manager in doctor’s office, the warehouse manager in a storage facility, or an inventory manager in a retail operation, all managers interact with their staff on a daily basis. As such, maintaining an educated and informed management team will go a long way in helping your business comply with complicated labor and employment laws.

In an informal poll taken by AllBusiness (a division of Dunn & Bradstreet), managers were asked, “What is a manager’s role”? The answers were wide-ranging, but all shared the same underlying theme: daily oversight of the staff:

“A manager’s role is to provide proper oversight and direction to a group that is trying to accomplish a certain task. They may also act as a mediator between those under him. Managers may need to be called upon at times to be disciplinarians or morale boosters.”

“To make sure the place runs smoothly.”

“A manager’s role is to maintain a productive atmosphere while conserving cost. He is the communication link between the employees and upper management.”

The Manager’s Role

For a manager to effectively do their job, they must be educated on the proper methods of discipline, motivation, and management. Furthermore, managers act as a direct extension of the executives and ownership of the organization. As such, any misstep by a manager may expose the entire organization to an employment lawsuit. While much of a manager’s role may seem like common sense, they must virtually become employment law and human resources experts to do their job properly.

Dozens of State and Federal laws dictate precisely how managers can treat employees, speak to them, discipline, warn, and terminate them.

Some of the most important laws governing these areas are Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibits employment discrimination; the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), which protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older; the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which prohibits disability discrimination, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which, among other things, provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.

Educated Managers = Safe Employers

So, while you may have hired your manager to “make sure the place runs smoothly”, or to “maintain a productive atmosphere”, equally, if not more important, is to make sure your management team is aware of the laws that govern their daily interaction with their staff. If you follow the steps below, you’ll be on your way to protecting your company, and yourself, from lawsuits:

Make sure management is familiar with all company policies and procedures.
Managers should actively review the Employee Handbook.
They should be familiar with the company Mission Statement.
Managers should be positive role models, always acting ethically with motivational leadership skills.
Act professionally at all times.
Encourage management to attend training classes to further educate themselves.
CONSTANTLY and CONSISTENTLY contact the Human Resources department before taking employment-related action.

In summary, encourage and provide learning opportunities to your management staff. Make it clear to them that conscious application of that knowledge is expected on a daily basis. Following these best practices will go a long way to help you and your business remain compliant with employment and labor laws, while promoting a positive and motivated work environment.

Ari Rosenstein is the Director of Marketing at CPEhr, a human resources outsourcing firm, specializing in California labor law compliance and PEO services. It currently services 15,000 employees and hundreds of clients nationwide.

Challenges in the Modern Education Management

Tackling violent incidents on the campuses of educational institutions seems to be one of the major administrative challenges. There are many instances of clashes, murder, group clashes, indecent behaviour with female staff or girl students, and other related incidents. It is unfortunate that such criminal incidents do take place on the campuses of educational institutions. All the concerned people are supposed to maintain standards and also protect the dignity of the educational institutions.

Teachers, managers, governments, media, voluntary organisations, and several other national and international organisations need to work towards the peaceful management of the educational institutions.

Mere seminars, workshops, research, may not yield the desired results. Concrete action is the need of the hour.

The increase in competition among the institutions is responsible for improvements in several facilities too.

Some of the major challenges include: 1. Safety, and security of all, 2. Supply of high quality food, in case of residential campuses, and water, 3. Quality of teaching, and non- teaching staff, 4. Misbehaviour, 5. Maintenance of over all quality, 6. Payments of bills, and receiving the fees, 7. Retaining, and enhancement of reputation, 8. Satisfying all the people concerned, 9. Maintainance of hostels quality and dispensary or first aid, 10. Solutions to several problems, 11. Conducting examinations professionally, 12. Dealing with the mistakes committed by students and other staff during examinations, 13. Management of laboratories, 14. Conducting workshops, seminars, 15. placements. 16. Enhancing Confidence. 17. Management of accounts or financial management, 18. Materials management, 19. Prevention of untoward incidents, 20. Academic and non-academic achievements, 21. Maintenance of infrastructure, 22. Managing time, 23. Adhering to academic and non-academic schedules, 24. Protecting the constitutional values, 25. Sticking to the rules and regulations of the governments both at the central and the state levels. 26. Avoidance of committing mistakes, 27. Maintaining high quality transportation for students, and other staff, etc.

Only when the above challenges are tackled professionally, the true education can be imparted to the students. The campuses need to train all the concerned professionally and at regular intervals.

Educate Managers on Time Sheet Red Flags

One of the critical responsibilities of a company manager is the ability to manage the schedules worked by his or her employees and to prevent time clock abuse. It is not uncommon in the workforce today for employees to cover for their co-workers by punching them in or out fraudulently, or for employees to simply lie or exaggerate on their time sheets. This abuse can cost a company thousands of dollars and can embroil them in wage investigations from the U.S. Department of Labor. A skilled manager acts as the first line of defense against this kind of time sheet abuse.

According to Todd Wozniak, an attorney with Greenberg Traurig, “Most of the issues that come up about time sheets deal with employees reporting the same start and stop time each day as opposed to actual start and stop times. Those issues usually have to be addressed through training and disciplinary action. It is also important for managers to actually review time sheets, ensure employees appear to be filling them out correctly, and require employees to sign their time sheets to acknowledge accurate reporting.”

Over reporting and underreporting work hours is also a major area of time sheet abuse. A manager needs to stress the importance of accurately reporting the time, not just reporting less time which can result in erroneous hours actually worked by an employee. The last issue a company wants to get entangled in is a labor dispute with the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) over erroneous time sheet reporting which could lead to claims for unpaid wages, including overtime violations, plus DOL fines and penalties.

All employees should receive fair and accurate compensation for their work efforts. As a result, employing a sophisticated time clock system can work well to prevent numerous time management mistakes which could really hurt a company. To prevent abuse of any type of electronic timekeeping system, a number of factors may be used to help make the system exploit-proof. For example, a time management device used to clock-in and clock-out could be secured with restricted individual ID badges, PIN numbers or even better, a biometric device reading of an employee’s finger or hand.

There are options for companies on a budget to pursue. A web-based time-keeping software system is one such option. All you need is a computer with internet access. With a reliable timekeeping system in place, the possibility of an employee misrepresenting their hours diminishes if managed electronically. A time clock management system is a necessity for a business to run effectively. It lowers the room for abuse and error and ultimately helps an employer to successfully control their largest operating expense – Employee Payroll.

All About the Learning Management System

The emergence of internet and different mobile phone application has made organizations look for ways to blend people, processes, and technology in a more robust manner. A Learning Management System is a software that helps educational as well as corporate organizations automate various administrative tasks related to registration, tracking, and reporting of classes and training sessions. Such a system serves as a great platform to conduct one or multiple online classes and training sessions to let individuals easily access the courses, 24×7.

Some of the popular learning management solutions include Moodle, Sakai, LRN, and so on. These open-source learning management solutions have achieved tremendous popularity, not only among educational institutes, but also among non-profits and corporate organizations.

Let’s discuss the benefits of using such an open-source education management systems.

Feature-rich Tools to Manage Class and Training Registrations

Learning management solutions help organizers easily create and manage class/training registrations. Setting up online registration forms lets individuals, from any corner of the world, freely access such forms whenever they wish. They can easily fill up the form and submit the same, sitting at the comfort of their home or travelling on a bus (using a laptop or a high-end mobile!).

Customization Feature

Educators and event organizers can use an open-source learning platform to create customized registration forms. Customization includes adding your organization’s logo, inserting any supporting images/graphics, and changing the page layout. Such platforms also help you create endless numbers of customized reports to assemble any kind of data and information.

Collaboration Tools to Improve Interactivity with Students/Attendees

Collaboration tools such as emails, video conferencing, and online chatting help in connecting with your users in real-time. These tools help you easily share urgent course materials and any class or training-related news with the registrants. You can instantly send emails, inviting or reminding individuals to attend a class/event. You can even start a video conference anytime to discuss about your company policies, connecting with employees in all branches simultaneously.

Highly Scalable and Affordable to Use

Almost all open-source learning management solutions come at an affordable rate for anyone to use, as and when needed. Moreover, any form of learning platform is highly scalable, in the sense that you can use it to address your ever-increasing business demands and interest.

Easily Track and Monitor the Progress of Each Program/Class

Organizers can create reports to assess class or student performance records. They can even track the progress of each class and training program to fix any flaws in the process.

Top East Coast Education Schools

Over the last few years, the education scenario has changed significantly. It won’t be wrong to say that it has become different from what it used to be 20 years back. Education has turned into a vast field, which generally encompasses a wide range of subjects. These days, teachers and tutors working in schools or universities are held in high esteem. Today teaching is considered as one of the most respectful occupations. In fact, talking in terms of present context there is no better investment you can make than making a career in education. In recent times, the demand for qualified educators has been rise and this trend is more likely to increase in the near future. It doesn’t mater, whether you are more inclined in working as an elementary school teacher, special education instructor, professor, lecturer or corporate trainer, in education industry you can find a career that can be extremely rewarding.

Today if we look at the current scenario then we can easily find that there has been a considerable increase in the number of educational institutions in the United States, but in recent years the East Coast of the United States has turned out to be the major hub of education schools that has pulled many students from all across the nation. While the physical East Coast of the United States ranges from Maine down to Florida, but the term ‘East Coast’ primarily refers to the Northeastern and mid Atlantic states. In fact, nowadays this East Coast region of the United States is considered as an abode to many top-ranked and admired education colleges and universities. Most of the schools are known for academics and are widely recognized names among U.S. top education schools. So in case you are looking forward to earning an education degree in any of the specialized field then here are few schools or universities that you can apply for:

Keller Graduate School of Management, New York: This school is known for offering exceptional learning environment and offer degree programs in Educational Management. It even delivers the credibility you expect and the flexibility you basically required to gain your professional edge.

Five Towns College, New York: Situated at the geographic center of Long Island, Five Towns College is majorly known preparing students for work in the education industry for many years. Dedicated to excellence in learning, teaching, and scholarship, the college offers the music education program. It offers the Bachelor of Music (MusB) in music education (K-12).

McCann School of Business & Technology, Pennsylvania: Committed to excel in the post-secondary education, this school offer diploma program in early childhood education. Besides this, the school has a rich record for helping its students succeed and features one of the best administration dedicated to the highest standards of instruction.

Montreat College School, North Carolina: Founded in the year 1916, this college offers programs at the associate’s and master’s degree levels in general education and elementary education respectively.

Strayer University, Virginia: Located at different campus in Virginia, this university offers quality education programs in Educational Management and Technology in Education that is affordable, supportive and convenient.

Today certainly education is one of the booming industries and growing with additional jobs each day. The profession has its many rewards, but in order to gain the benefits it is very important to earn a degree from a good school or university. These names mentioned above are some of the oldest and best know institutions of earning degree in education learning in East Coast region of the United States.

Classroom Management in a Secondary School

The most noticeable difference when moving away from a primary classroom lies in the behaviour of students of a secondary school which is more exaggerated and they can be more sensitive and argumentative at the same time. For every teacher, classroom management in secondary education is affected by the age range of the students but there are some principles of classroom management can be very effective. These principles include:

Having Clear and Realistic Expectations

Students in secondary schools are used to being taught various subjects by different teachers. As the students face different teaching methods they become accustomed to a wide range of teaching styles, rules and outlooks. As a teacher, it is essential to have very clear and achievable expectations from the time he first enters a classroom.

Communicating with Other Teachers

Teachers in secondary schools often develop poor communication among themselves. In order to reduce the classroom management issues, teachers dealing in secondary education must communicate with each other. A student behaving poorly during one teacher’s lesson may be doing so due to difference with a teacher teaching another subject. Discussing such matters will allow teachers to realise their mistakes or deficiencies in a classroom.

Being Self-assured

One very critical requirement for good classroom management in a secondary school setting is that the teacher should be extremely confident about his or hers subject. This helps to boost a teacher’s confidence in front of a class. Proper planning skills help to plan lessons and avoid last-minute preparations which might show the teacher as being anxious in front of the students.

Always Do a Follow-up

When teaching in a secondary school, classroom management is often made more difficult by the sheer number of students that are crammed in a single classroom. This makes it very difficult to keep track of issues like students bunking classes, skipping detentions and missing homework. Despite these problems, it is must to do a follow-up one one’s work for the day. This ensures realising things that were missed upon during the course of the day. Failing to do this guarantees a boost to the unruly behaviour in the class or the student’s respect for the teacher taking a severe dip.

Understanding Your Role

As an authoritative figure, the secondary school teachers should not just teach try and connect the concepts to examples from real life. The objective is not to produce geniuses but to help the student make informed decisions, become responsible and to think clearly. Secondary school education isn’t limited to the classroom and being a guiding influence to the students outside the realm of textbooks can help to connect better with the students.

The classroom management issues which a teacher faces in a secondary education environment are very different from the problems faced in a primary classroom. India education management system have passing through various issues like teaches requirement, teaching process in various levels i.e. secondary education, primary education, new education technique implementation and more.

Managers in Higher Education Must Harness Power, Politics

Competition for resources – internal and external – means power and politics become even greater issues for managers in higher education today.

Add to that the closer scrutiny of performance, both academic and administrative, and managers in higher education face some real challenges.

From an educational perspective, the changes over the last decade in the way learning is facilitated (e.g. the move to such strategies as distance learning, e-learning and blended learning), mean the challenges for managers become twofold – content, what is done and process, the way it is done.

In such an environment, the calls for the higher education manager to add the “leadership” string to his or her management bow are long and loud. This is irrespective of whether the manager has arrived via the academic or administrative stream to their current position.

But, just what is meant by “leadership”? Does it differ from “management”? And most importantly, how does one “do leadership”?

Let’s start with management. Management is what one gets paid to do, i.e. to achieve certain tasks using the available resources. Management success is seen through the eyes of the organisation. Management is therefore mandatory (probably under pain of death!).

Leadership on the other hand, is only seen through the eyes of others – peers, colleagues, staff and other key stakeholders – those whom we need to influence without authority. Leadership is optional, but obviously highly desirable. Leadership within the group or team is evident when people are highly motivated, working co-operatively and performing at their best.

One further factor distinguishes leadership. Unlike management, it does not reside in one person – it is more a condition or function rather than a role. As Charles Handy once described it – leadership is “distributed” throughout the manager’s group or team. Although leadership may start with the manager, it’s the conditions that the manager establishes and maintains that decide whether the leadership function flourishes.

Just what are these conditions and how does the manager establish them? Four conditions are evident when leadership exists:

* A shared understanding of the environment. i.e., people have a very clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses within their group or team together with the opportunities and threats. There is a collective understanding of “We know what we face.”

* A shared sense of direction. i.e., people know (collectively) what they are trying to achieve. People can say “We know where we are going.”

* A shared set of values, i.e. people will say “We really enjoy working in this team with these people.”

* A shared feeling of power. There is a feeling of “We can do this.”

Establishing these conditions can commence with a series of workshops to encourage the sharing and distributive nature of leadership.

Then of course there is the external focus of leadership – influencing those outside the team or group to adequately manage power and politics. This can start with a thorough stakeholder analysis such as:

* Who are my key stakeholders? i.e., by name and / or position – customers, suppliers, owners, staff, community, industry.

* What is the effectiveness of each of these relationships? Give each a rating from +3 to -3 to give a clearer indication of effectiveness.

* How important is each relationship? Rank each on the basis of “high”, “medium” or “low”.

* Select those with a high degree of importance and a low rate of relationship effectiveness

* Ask – What are their sources of power and influence? How might I best use these?

* Discuss your analysis with a trusted colleague or friend (perhaps from outside H.E.). Develop a plan for managing each of these important stakeholders. Then review these relationships again in three months time.

Managing power and politics is a challenge for managers in higher education, but it can be mastered. As managers, too often we are so tied up in the moment of trying to achieve results that we do not take the time to reflect and plan an effective leadership strategy.

Hopefully the approach discussed here will generate a structure where distributed leadership copes with the day-to-day processes, freeing you up to focus on important management content issues. Great when our people can say, “Yep, we know the challenges facing us, the direction we have to go and that we will support one another. We can really make a difference here.”

Blackboard Learning Management System

Learning management systems, or LMSs, are powerful systems created for the effective management of all business and organizational computer software and educational functions. Utilized throughout all types of businesses and organizations, learning management systems are vastly becoming a necessary resource in today’s business, organizational, and education economies.

A LMS is customized toward a particular business or organization’s needs and once implemented, proves to be an invaluable resource for success and long-term growth. History has told us, mismanagement in any organization often leads to failure.

One industry witnessing great amounts of success with learning management systems is the education industry. One of the leading companies providing a LMS within the education industry is Blackboard Worldwide with their Blackboard learning management system.

The Blackboard learning management system is a leading-edge, interactive education management system without equal. Offered as a group of software applications geared toward an enhanced online teaching and learning experience, the Blackboard learning management system is rapidly becoming the top choice in a LMS for many educational facilities such as Northwestern University.

A few of the reasons the Blackboard learning management system is so successful can be summed up as follows:

Web-Based Instruction:

The ability to create powerful learning materials by using internet 2.0 technology is allowing both instructors and students to teach and learn in a virtual environment like never before.
Web applications such as streaming video and other web-based interactive programs make it seem as though the classroom is right in front of you.

Such environments are extremely conducive to focused teaching and learning. There may be other students in the ‘classroom’, but the feel of a one-on-one teaching experience makes the Blackboard learning management system seem personal.

By utilizing the power and reach of the internet, students are now able to use the Blackboard learning management system to interact not only with their instructor, but other students as well. Capabilities such as these often encourage students to better interact with the course work, and participate in a more active manner all while building comfortable relationships.

For instructors, the Blackboard learning management system offers many benefits as well. Not only can they create exciting and new interactive instructional material, the Blackboard learning management system has built-in student assessment and evaluation capabilities. This allows both student and instructor to interact conference-style without the distractions associated with a live classroom setting. In short, the student and teacher are more at ease during the learning and knowledge-building process.

In summary:

The Blackboard learning management system is a powerful ally for students and teachers alike. The lessons are easily prepared and the students are more at ease, which often leads to a more positive learning environment.

Quality Management Framework for Educational Institutions

Introduction

Management is the ability to create, organize and utilize resources, economically, efficiently & effectively. Management is essential aspect of human life, both personal as well as collective. Personal management shapes effective individuals, while collective management is required for well-performing institutions. Management is either good or poor. Poor management plays a decisive role in institutional failure or ineffectiveness. Educational institutions provide knowledge, build character and enhance wisdom level of students. They prepare students for practical life. An inefficient-ineffective educational institution will produce harmful individuals for society. There are multiple reasons of inefficiency or ineffectiveness of an educational institution such as mediocrity of teachers, irrelevancy of syllabus, ineffective headship and poor management system. However, poor management is decisive drawback of non-performing educational institutions. Poor management means – traditional management techniques by educational entrepreneurs, imitative leadership approach by academicians, micro management style by head teacher/principal, investor mindset by owners, and dictatorial approach of classroom management by teachers.

There are three major areas of Quality Learning Process – Key Activities Area, Performance Area, and Relations Area. Firstly, the key activities revolve around knowledge absorption / knowledge dissemination. Generally, the key activities include learning goals, course planning, learning schedule, teaching methods, and classroom management. Secondly, the performance area concentrates on learning outcomes. It studies learning performance of students, teaching performance of subject teachers, and managing performance of class teacher/principal. Thirdly, the relations analysis addresses multiple relations among students, teachers, parents, and educational managers. Dominantly, it deals with effective management of all learning events. The ultimate target of relation analysis is to realize synergistic outcomes from learning process.

Quality Management Vs Micro Management

Governance is inevitable aspect of collective life. It may adopt two courses – good & bad. Good governance is based on Quality Management while bad governance is outcome of Micro Management. Primarily, Quality Management is a system that pursues relentlessly excellence towards improvement of services offered, while Micro Management adopts cosmetic approach towards improvement. Quality management differs with micro management on countless dimensions however the prominent differences are:

Quality management is modern management, while micro management is traditional management. Traditional management is very hierarchical, organized, and disciplined. It is the military style of management, so that it only works in the military or in a micro set up. On the other hand, quality management is democratic management; it is against dominating tactics of individuals. A quality manager derives its powers from the principles she/he follows while the micro manager derives its power from the position she/he enjoys.

Quality Management utilizes talent of people at all levels (learning, teaching and management) optimally, while Micro Management concentrates on talents of leader only, it is forgetful towards talents of everyone or collective talent based on healthy competition or cooperation. At institutional level, an achievement or failure is dominantly team phenomenon. The phenomenon of individualism means massive flattery of leaders / seniors. In nutshell, quality management means meritorious interaction, while micro management means massive institutional politics.

Quality Management is based on humanistic philosophy. It begins with the belief that all people can be trained for the betterment of system. People want to do a good job and expect respect. The philosophy behind the approach values the self-esteem of those who teach and learn. It is Micro Management that deals with teachers/students, wrongly. The situation nurtures apathetic mindset among students/teachers. On the other hand, quality management develops empathetic mindset among students/teachers.

Quality Management postulates that the system of an institution is vital for staff performance. At the time of crises, the quality framework advises a system approach, it is the system that overwhelmingly is the main source of problem. The quality framework gives special attention to the processes that produce substandard services. It is a comprehensive and cooperative management so that it is against managing each component as though it were separate from the others and warns steps that pit the person against the system and against other persons. In micro-management processes are ignored and persons get undue importance. A micro-leader adopts generally the policy of ‘divide & rule’, so that workers are derisive towards each other.

Quality Management believes in personal responsibility, but goes beyond that concept to consider the especial responsibilities of those who manage for optimum system performance. A proactive concern for how people respond to managerial actions is crucial to the success of quality management, which is why the theory emphasis the need for managers to understand elementary principles of psychology, statistics and decision analysis to analyze the ground realities during some decision-making/interactive process. In micro management, there is gulf between thoughts, words & deeds of leader. A micro-manager manipulates persons/situations for optimum performance, so that performance is unstable and volatile. A consistent performance of students/teachers is inevitable requirement of educational institutions, so that micro-management means failure.

Law of Causation is universal phenomenon of life. The law categorically states that an outcome is inevitably based on some antecedent, that is, there is mean-end duality. Means are antecedents; they are necessary precondition for ends. An end can be materialized through right or wrong mean. Human life repeatedly faces the dilemma of right mean vs. wrong mean. Sometime, an end become unachievable, seemingly or really, through right means consequently means are generally comprised by effort-makers. For example, profit is an essential end for institutional viability; it can be achieved through wrong means such as rent-seeking, kick-backs, manipulation of teachers and manipulation of students. Quality management proposes wise mean-end framework for goal materialization. In micro-management means are not decisive during goals realization process so that means are compromised now and then. Micro Management is derisive towards law of causation so that it breeds mistrust among stakeholders and fails ultimately.

It is generally said, justice delayed is justice denied / justice hurried is justice buried. At institutional level procrastination or haste are two great menaces that disturb institutional performance, now and again. Micro Management is unable to tackle these issues due to non-system thinking. The solution lies in systematic thinking towards time efficiency / information efficiency, these factors are vital tools of quality management against haste or procrastination.

The end-user of a service is always decisive for the survival of institution. Parents are decisive for the continual existence of educational institution. Quality Management gives due importance to the requirements of all parents especially responsible parents. On the other hand, Micro Management gives importance only to reactive and affluent parents. The situation is not tenable, so that institution fails eventually.

Elements of Quality Framework

An institution is contractual arrangement of interdependent individuals to realize some goals and objectives; it works under the direction of some leader. Institutions are multiple, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and multilateral, both operationally and structurally. The orientation of an institution determines its course of action. For example, a specific group of some individuals assimilated to provide knowledge and to shape behavior-pattern of children give shape to schools, school is a social institution. Similarly, we can observe countless social, economic, and political institutions working in a modern society. A well-performing institution needs some success factors/performance indicators. An effective educational institution generally practices ten elements for quality management. Each variable has a functional significance that cannot be ignored. The elements are:

MISSION, VALUES, VISION, STRATEGY, SKILLS, RESOURCES, ORGANIZATION, EVALUATION, REWARD STRUCTURE AND ADJUSTMENTS

The efficacy of each element is tested on three grounds – foundational, structural, and operational. The first three elements – mission, values, and vision – have foundational significance. The next four elements – strategy, skills, resources, and organization – erect stable institutional structure. The last three elements – evaluation, rewards, and adjustment – have operational significance. The foundational, structural and operational aspects jointly shape a well-performing educational institution.